Context can be everything in historical interpretation, as Thomas Asbridge makes clear in a brief but compelling epilogue on the ideological legacy of the crusades; and in the shadow of the Haiti earthquake, these hundreds of pages of death and destruction resonate with an immediately visceral horror. The "first crusade" itself is a name steeped in hindsight, since the word "crusade" was not coined for more than years after its participants set out — and, of course, they did not know that their armed "pilgrimage" would be the first of a series of such expeditions. Nor was it a response to an act of aggression from the Islamic world.
See Article History Alternative Titles: The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan.
Both the geographic area designated by the name and the political status of it have changed over the course of some three millennia. The region or at least a part of it is also known as the Holy Land and is held sacred among JewsChristiansand Muslims.
Since the 20th century it has been the object of conflicting claims of Jewish and Arab national movements, and the conflict has led to prolonged violence and, in several instances, open warfare.
The word Palestine derives from Philistia, the name given by Greek writers to the land of the Philistineswho in the 12th century bce occupied a small pocket of land on the southern coast, between modern Tel Aviv—Yafo and Gaza.
After Roman times the name had no official status until after World War I and the end of rule by the Ottoman Empirewhen it was adopted for one of the regions mandated to Great Britain; in addition to an area roughly comprising present-day Israel and the West Bank, the mandate included the territory east of the Jordan River now constituting the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan, which Britain placed under an administration separate from that of Palestine immediately after receiving the mandate for the territory.
The name Palestine has long been in popular use as a general term to denote a traditional region, but this usage does not imply precise boundaries. In contemporary understanding, however, Palestine is generally defined as a region bounded on the east by the Jordan River, on the north by the border between modern Israel and Lebanon, on the west by the Mediterranean Sea including the coast of Gazaand on the south by the Negevwith its southernmost extension reaching the Gulf of Aqaba.
The strategic importance of the area is immense: Settlement depends closely on water, which is almost never abundant. Precipitation, which arrives in the cool half of the year, decreases in amount in general from north to south and from the coast inland.
Perennial rivers are few, and the shortage of water is aggravated by the porous nature of the limestone rocks over much of the country. For further reading on the political units most closely associated with Palestine, see the articles EgyptIsraelJordanand Lebanon.
Land Coastal lowlands of varying widths front the Mediterranean. Farther southward the lowland opens out rapidly into the Plain of Sharonabout 8 miles 13 km wide and extending south to the latitude of Tel Aviv—Yafo. Once covered with marshes, the Sharon plain was reclaimed in the post-Exilic and Hellenistic period and is now a settled area.
Fields and fruit groves are laid out between scattered sandstone ridges, on which villages have grown up. South of the spur of low hills that approaches the coast at about Yafo Jaffathe plain widens into a fertile region known in biblical times as Philistia, a district of orange groves, irrigated orchards, and fields of grain.
Covered with rich basaltic soils washed down from the Galilean hills, Esdraelon is important both for its fertility and for the great highway it opens from the Mediterranean to the lands across the Jordan. The hill country of Galilee is better-watered and more thickly wooded than that of Samaria or Judaea.
North of the Bet Netofa Valley Plain of Asochis is Upper Galilee, with elevations of 4, feet 1, metresa scrub-covered limestone plateau that is thinly populated.
To the south, Lower Galilee—with its highest peak, Mount Tabor 1, feet [ metres] —is a land of east-west ridges enclosing sheltered vales like that of Nazareth, with rich basaltic soils. Samariathe region of the ancient kingdom of Israel, is a hilly district extending from the Plain of Esdraelon to the latitude of Ramallah.
The city of Jerusalem has expanded rapidly along the mountain ridges. It is separated from the coastal plain by a longitudinal fosse and a belt of low hills of soft chalky limestone, about 5 to 8 miles 8 to 13 km wide, known as Ha-Shefela.
The Crusades: The War for the Holy Land by Thomas Asbridge and Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades by Jonathan Phillips. Crusades Overview. First Crusade. Third Crusade. Venetians Take Constantinople. Saladin. Saladin Takes Jerusalem: The Crusades. In an assembly of churchmen called by Pope Urban II met at Clermont, France. The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups. In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between and
The Judaean plateau falls abruptly to the Jordan Valleywhich is approached with difficulty along the wadis Kelt and Mukallik. The Jordan Valley is a deep rift valley that varies in width from 1.
The Negeva desertlike region, is triangular in shape with the apex at the south. It extends from Beersheba in the north, where 8 inches mm or more of precipitation falls annually and grain is grown, to the port city of Elat on the Red Seain the extremely arid south.The Crusades were organized by western European Christians after centuries of Muslim wars of expansion.
Their primary objectives were to stop the expansion of Muslim states, to reclaim for Christianity the Holy Land in the Middle East, and to recapture territories that . The College of Holy Cross, a Catholic school, has decided to drop its knight mascot and change the name of the school paper because it links them to the horrible violence that occurred during the Crusades.
Because, you know, only the Christians did horrible things during the Crusades. The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land by Thomas Asbridge The Crusades is an authoritative, accessible single-volume history of the brutal struggle for the Holy Land in the Middle Ages/5(37).
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval initiativeblog.com most commonly known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is also applied to other church-sanctioned initiativeblog.com were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups.
In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between and Land. Coastal lowlands of varying widths front the Mediterranean. The most northerly is the Plain of ʿAkko (Acre), which extends with a breadth of 5 to 9 miles (8 to 14 km) for about 20 miles (32 km) from the Lebanon border in the north to the Carmel promontory, in Israel, in the south, where it narrows to a mere feet ( metres).
Farther southward the lowland opens out rapidly into the.