These organizations have been primarily educational in purpose and isolated by nature. Yet, current child-rearing practices, influenced by changing values and the media, seriously damage child development.
Their descriptions seem quite different on a superficial level. For example, Fraley and Shaver  describe the "central propositions" of attachment in adults as follows: The emotional and behavioral dynamics of infant-caregiver relationships and adult romantic relationships are governed by the same biological system.
The kinds of individual differences observed in infant-caregiver relationships are similar to the ones observed in romantic relationships.
Individual differences in adult attachment behavior are reflections of the expectations and beliefs people have formed about themselves and their close relationships on the basis of their attachment histories; these "working models" are relatively stable and, as such, may be reflections of early caregiving experiences.
Romantic love, as commonly conceived, involves the interplay of attachment, caregiving, and sex. Compare this to the five "core propositions" of attachment theory listed by Rholes and Simpson: Experiences in earlier relationships create internal working models and attachment styles that systematically affect attachment relationships.
The attachment orientations of adult caregivers influence the attachment bond their children have with them. Working models and attachment orientations are relatively stable over time, but they are not impervious to change. Some forms of psychological maladjustment and clinical disorders are attributable in part to the effects of insecure working models and attachment styles.
While these two lists clearly reflect the theoretical interests of the investigators who created them, a closer look reveals a number of shared themes. The shared themes claim that: People are biologically driven to form attachments with others, but the process of forming attachments is influenced by learning experiences.
Individuals form different kinds of attachments depending on the expectations and beliefs they have about their relationships. These expecations and beliefs constitute internal "working models" used to guide relationship behaviors. Internal "working models" are relatively stable even though they can be influenced by experience.
Individual differences in attachment can contribute positively or negatively to mental health and to quality of relationships with others. No doubt these themes could be described in a variety of ways and other themes added to the list.
Regardless of how one describes the core principles of attachment theory, the key insight is that the same principles of attachment apply to close relationships throughout the lifespan.
The principles of attachment between children and caregivers are fundamentally the same as the principles of attachment between adult romantic partners. Attachment Styles Edit Adults have four attachment styles: The secure attachment style in adults corresponds to the secure attachment style in children.
However, the dismissive avoidant attachment style and the fearful avoidant attachment style, which are distinct in adults, correspond to a single avoidant attachment style in children.
The descriptions of adult attachment styles offered below are based on the relationship questionnaire devised by Bartholomew and Horowitz  and on a review of studies by Pietromonaco and Barrett.
I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me. Securely attached people tend to have positive views of themselves and their partners.
They also tend to have positive views of their relationships. Often they report greater satisfaction and adjustment in their relationships than people with other attachment styles.Parenting in Poverty: Inequity through the Lens of Attachment and Resilience Wendella Wray, MS, initiativeblog.com, PhD(c) that will promote insecure attachments in parent-child relationships and harsher parenting conditions (Conger, A well-known study completed by faculty at University of Michigan, known as the Panel Study of Income.
A study conducted by the University of Denver identified three very different kinds of attachment.
Not all of them are healthy – but each one is a powerful force. Secure Attachment – Securely attached adults support and respect one another. To date, several studies have applied such a frame to the study of interpersonal communication (for reviews, see Floyd, a; Floyd & Afifi, ), including the study of affectionate communication.
The subsequent section explicates findings related to several health correlates and consequences of affectionate behavior in close relationships. Attachment theory is a psychological model attempting to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
"Attachment theory is not formulated as a general theory of relationships; it addresses only a specific facet": how human beings respond within relationships when hurt, separated from loved .
People who have secure attachments with their parents and caregivers are often able to work through challenges with other people in respectful, affectionate, and loving ways. It took hours of observing 40 cat-human pairs for scientists to conclude that the bond between the two can be similar to other human relationships.