For a suitable donation, a question could be put to the Pythia and an answer obtained from Apollo. Since the words of the Pythia were hard to understand, the priests attending her wrote up the answer in verse and delivered it to the petitioner. The answers were legendarily obscure or ambiguous -- the source of the modern of meaning of "oracular," which is precisely to be obscure or ambiguous.
However, social scientific research has not yet found strong evidence indicating that being a professional athlete increases the likelihood of a man sexually assaulting female intimates, acquaintances, or strangers. Still, a growing body of empirical work reveals a relationship between participation in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I sports and sexual assault.
Even so, not all male members of college athletic teams are at equal risk of being sexually abusive. For example, golfers, tennis players, and figure skaters are less likely to victimize women than are basketball and football players. Many of the same factors that affect fraternities are important with men involved in highly aggressive sports, such as football: Another factor that warrants careful attention is the coach.
For example, there are coaches who emphasize that the worst thing that a male athlete can do is to develop what they regard to be feminine traits. The male bonding in these groups of athletes, who work, live, and play together every day for years, can be very powerful. It starts with the peer group values on athletic teams, values that encourage athletes to treat women as objects of conquest.
This group bonding can be so strong that such men are willing to take part in rape, or to observe rape, or at least to take part in a cover-up, because the alternative is to go against the group.
It becomes more important to be part of the group than it is to do the right thing. What makes college athletic teams special is that so many people have a strong vested interest in seeing the charges dropped or criminal behavior covered up. For example, in some cases that go to trial, jurors will acquit athletes rather than ruin the upcoming sports season.
Under the best of circumstances, sports researchers argue, athletes feel that they are above the law and that the rules do not apply to them. Too often they are right. Like most of the empirical and theoretical work on sexual assault on the college campus, the bulk of the research on athletes and sexual violence takes the view that male athletes only become abusive when they enter college.
However, a few studies show that high school boys can be as violent as or more violent than college men and be in fact headed off to college looking for mechanisms that will support their violent behaviors and sexist attitudes. Still, at the time of writing this essay, only one study was published in a scientific journal that focused on the relationship between high school sports participation and sexual assaults committed by college men.
A survey conducted by Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Pakalka, and White found that college men who participated in aggressive high school sports were more sexually abusive, had more sexist attitudes, were more accepting of rape myths, and were more homophobic than other men.
Indeed, this study strongly suggests that many men arrive at college fully prepared to abuse women with no learning required. Obviously, members of various male athletic teams are at high risk of committing sexual assault. However, given survey research showing that sexual abuse and other forms of woman abuse are widespread on North American college campuses, it is logical to conclude that these behaviors are not unique to athletes who participate in aggressive sports.
In fact, a growing body of proabuse male peer support research shows that athletes are just one part of a larger culture that views woman abuse as a normal and legitimate way of interacting with women. Nevertheless, further research on the relationship between sports participation and sexual violence is necessary, including gathering data from larger and more representative samples of college students.
Moreover, there is a need for theory construction and testing. Regardless of what new empirical and theoretical directions researchers take, there are many other groups of sexually violent men on campus and elsewhere who warrant significant scholarly, media, and political attention.
Public heroes, private felons: Athletes and crimes against women. Athletes and acquaintance rape. Dating aggression, sexual coercion, and aggression-supporting attitudes among college men as a function of participation in high school sports.
Violence Against Women, 12, — Sexual assault on the college campus: The role of male peer support. If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Minorities in Criminal Justice Essay Sample. The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC. Pages: Word count: ; Athletes Privilege and Justice. You’re laying down in your bed unable to sleep, yet so tired and exhausted you can’t move a muscle.
Your world has fallen apart. Sep 25, · After hours of careful consideration, and even a visit from Nate Boyer, a retired Green Beret and former N.F.L. player, we came to the conclusion that we . Understanding Race and Privilege Social Justice 2 (), in her essay “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”, wrote, “I realized that I had been taught about racism as something that puts others at a disadvantage, but also had been taught not to see one of its corollary such as athletes, individuals perceived as.
Education is a Right, Not a Privilege. Access to education is a right, not a privilege and the Global Partnership is striving to ensure that this right is protected for children across the world. In Korea, a discussion on education for democracy and social justice.
Sep 02, · The New York Times reported in how several universities spent millions building new academic centers just for athletes. The University of .