Firstly the essay will be looking into detail what offender profiling is and describing it. Secondly the essay will be looking at the comparison of the US and UK approaches and the effectiveness. In the criminal justice system, there is a growing demand for experts in the field of human behaviour who can assist law enforcement with solving unusual homicide cases. Law enforcement agencies often seek help from psychologists, criminologists, psychiatrists, and other professionals that specialize in human behaviour when trying to catch a suspect.
Itulua-Abumere Criminal Profiling by: Abumere Published by uPublish. Its recent appearances in the media have certainly raised the profile of criminal psychology and a number of students are keen to work in this area. Unfortunately, the media portrayal of criminal profiling has often been far from accurate.
The basic reason for this is because they have a tendency to imply that profiling is a perfect skill to some extent comparable to a precognitive clairvoyant capability Muller, As a result of the general popularity of criminal profiling, much has been written on this topic and a comprehensive review of the literature is beyond the scope of this paper Muller, Profiling has its proponents among those who understand the process and have had successful experiences with it Ault et al.
The understanding of profiling as an investigative technique is still not well known by many law enforcement professionals including criminologists, and behavioural scientist Cook and Hinman, According to different authors including forensic psychologist and FBI-trained profiler, criminal profiling can be a very useful tool in the investigation of very violent crime.
The present development of criminal profiling has been said to be more art than science. What is criminal profiling? Criminal profiling is the inferring of an offender's characteristics from his or her crime scene behaviour. According to Douglas and Olshaker "Criminal profiling is the development of an investigation by means of obtainable information regarding an offence and crime scene to compile a psychosomatic representation of the known architect of the crime.
For example, a profiler might try to infer a criminal's age, gender or employment history commencing from the manner he or she have performed throughout the period the crime was carried out.
This practice has been referred to by names including offender profiling, psychological profiling and specific profile analysis.
Criminal profiling is typically used with crimes where the offender's identity is unknown and with serious types of crime where the offender's identity is unknown and with serious types of crime, such as murder or rape. Profilers are also likely to work on crime series, which are collections of crimes that are thought to have been committed by the same offender Bull et al.
The different types of criminal profiling can be broken broadly into two types: The latter is what people most commonly associate with the term criminal profiling Bull et al. The types of tasks that a criminal profilers might be asked to complete depend on the type of profiler they are.
A geographical profiler could be asked to identify the likely location of an offender home from the geography of his or her known offences. A criminal profiler might be asked to construct a profile of an unknown offender giving details of his or her likely characteristics as inferred from the offender's behaviour at the crime scene.
When a criminal is apprehended the profiler might also be asked to advise the police on the way that particular suspects should be interviewed. From all Page 1 indications, criminal profiling is therefore an umbrella term for a number of different practices Ainsworth, Having identified what criminal profiling is, we should address the question 'Who are criminal profilers?
Psychiatrists, police officers and police civilian staff were also represented within his sample of offender profiler: The media has portrayed criminal profiling as a job in itself, but in reality, only few individuals, within the United Kingdom at least, conduct criminal profiling full-time.
Most offender profilers are called in as consultants: For example, Copson's study found only seventy-five instances of offender profilers giving advice inand this was the highest number recorded in one year for the time span of his study Copson, A number of different materials can be used by a criminal profiler in constructing a profile or in geographically profiling an offender's likely home.
One of the most important sources of information for constructing a profile would be the victim's or witnesses' accounts of the crime. In some types of crime it is possible that a victim's account may not be available, for example in the case of murder.
In such cases, an offender profiler might instead have to rely on post-mortem reports, sketches of the crime scene and accounts from others about the victim. Regardless of the documentation used in constructing the profile, a criminal profiler has a lot of information to absorb and process when trying to profile the offenders or their location Bull et al.
Geographical profiling is typically used to identify the likely area of an offender's residence from the location of the crime. Such an approach can be very useful in narrowing down a pool of suspects or enabling the police to prioritize an area for investigation or DNA sampling.
Geographical profiling has its history in environmental criminology.Geographic profiling is a suspect prioritization method that can assist with this process.
Geographic profiling is a tool that is especially suited for crime analysts as they are often already familiar with analytical techniques and the creation of crime maps. The effectiveness of criminal profiling in reality relies on the extent of which profiling has actually been performed in practice.
"Wilson et al. () propose, to some extent idealistically, that subsequent to focusing at the track documentation of profiling so far the proposition is that it works. Criminal Profiling Criminal Profiling, also known as offender profiling is a tool which can help investigators catch unknown criminals and at the same time developing a psychological sketch of the offender.
It is an Investigative and behavioral tool to work out the habits and traits of . Discuss approaches to profiling There are three approaches to criminal profiling; the British approach, the US approach and Geographical Profiling. The US approach is a top down approach which means they start with the big parts of the case and work down to the smaller things involved.
Criminal profiling thus deals with compiling and developing a perfect psychological profile of the criminal. The highest stronghold of getting this important information is the crime scene where every data is able to be collected.
This essay will be discussing the effectiveness of offender profiling techniques. Firstly the essay will be looking into detail what offender profiling is and describing it.
Secondly the essay will be looking at the comparison of the US and UK approaches and the effectiveness.