Depression and other psychiatric disorders Environmental factors Limited access to or intake of food Food attitudes and cultural preferences Elder abuse Open in a separate window A comprehensive geriatric assessment also addresses psychosocial, environmental factors, and affective symptoms of weight loss in the elderly. The loss of a caregiver, the inability to drive a motor vehicle, or moving into a new apartment or residence may precipitate a decline in oral intake and cause weight loss. Depressive symptoms such as these are important considerations when evaluating the nutritional health of a senior patient Hazzard et al ; Kane et al ; Williams ; Refai and Seidner
In this way, educational strategies to bring about behaviour change in individuals are given structural and environmental support. This has lead to definitions of health nutrition promotion which still have education as a central activity.
The parentheses are added to show the applicability to nutrition. This broader concept of health promotion asks planners to consider building both education and supporting strategies into programmes.
Frequently this will require inter-sectoral collaboration, e. Trends in nutrition education Nutrition education has been heavily influenced in recent years by theories and models of health behaviour change derived primarily from three disciplinary streams: This has lead to a series of widely used public health communication models that include "how to do it" steps Achterberg, These include the Triple A model of assess, analyse, and action.
Green's Precede model emphasises the importance of identifying the predisposing factors knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, confidence that provide the rationale or motivation for the behaviour; the enabling factors skills and resources and the reinforcing factors family, peers, teachers, etc.
The five-step model includes assessment, planning, development, implementation, and evaluation. More recently, Andrien has developed a planning model based on four phases: Conceptualisation, Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation Andrien, In general these influences have lead to a more scientific and rigorous approach to planning, in which the importance of analysing the determinants of the nutrition problem, and clearly defining objectives and methods of communication are recognised.
The principle of community participation in programme planning and evaluation, as well as implementation is also gaining acceptance. Evaluation should underpin all nutrition education programmes. The importance of planning at the outset for evaluation and monitoring is recognised, as is the value of continuous evaluation, as the basis for reorienting actions during the course of a project.
There is a growing interest in adopting a settings approach to nutrition education. Selecting key settings perhaps not traditionally seen as the domain of nutrition education programmesenables population sub-groups to be reached where they work and live.
The use of a wide range of settings and organisations provides for positive links to occur across disciplines and can encourage a wider community involvement in nutrition issues. A settings approach can also emphasise changes in organisations which support individual change "healthy hospitals", "healthy worksites", "healthy schools", "healthy communities", etc.
Settings for reaching the whole population can include, apart from primary health-care services, schools, day-care centres, worksites, recreation settings, social, religious, cultural or sporting groups, retail and commercial settings - street vendors, and cafeterias.
Current issues for nutrition education A number of reviews of nutrition education programmes in developing countries have been undertaken in recent years. These have been valuable both to highlight difficulties which can occur and also to provide examples of good practice which can be shared.
Issues for behavioural change There are now a number of evaluations which provide credible evidence for the positive effects of education on health and nutrition behaviour. The factors which these evaluations have identified as contributing to successful behaviour change are summarised in Table 1.
It should be noted that much of the scientifically developed knowledge base for nutrition education rests largely on evaluations of programmes conducted in developed countries.
Strategies selected to bring about behaviour change should be mediated by local knowledge and contexts. Actually bringing about behaviour change depends on many factors - probably the most critical being having behaviour change as the clear aim of a programme.
The availability of trained personnel who understand and can implement behaviour change strategies appropriately, and who can involve learners in solving their own nutrition problems is essential. Active involvement of learners in identifying their own needs.
The ease and convenience of taking action. Behaviour change must be seen as a process, e. Promotion of small discrete changes is more likely to be effective. Providing people with specific information about the desirable behaviour and how to make changes.
Specific interventions are more effective than general exhortations. More than one channel of influence should be used to provide consistent messages from several sources.
Community organisation and community leaders can support change. Information which allows for reasoned choice is preferable to didactic methods. Opportunities must be given to discuss the issues.
People are more likely to persist with actions if they find them enjoyable or rewarding. Present the desired behaviour in an enjoyable manner. Accurate information and instruction on how to make changes and channels for social action are critical. Decision and problem solving methods are more effective than didactic methods.Case Studies; FAQs; Skills Checklists; Online Companion: Pediatric Nursing, Caring for Children and Their Families, 2e Case Studies.
Case Study 1: Newborn ; Case Study 2: Infant; Case Study 3: Toddler; Case Study 4: Preschooler; Case Study 5: School-Age Child; Case Study 6: Adolescent. The Nursing Approach box analyzes a realistic nutrition case study in terms of the nursing process, demonstrating practical ways nurses can use nutrition in practice and process.
Author Information. Virtual Health Team Case Studies. Published by the Virtual Health Care Team® School of Health Professions. Nestle Nutrition (to date, using Nutrition Students) nnovative Practice Education Placements Case Studies 3 • mini case study presentation • home visits/nursing home visits with dietitians or nutrition nurses nnovative Practice Education Placements Case Studies placement.
placement. Case Studies. “The case studies are very comprehensive and allow the undergraduate student an opportu- nity to apply knowledge gained in the classroom to a potentially real clinical situation.” —Tamella Livengood, APRN, BC, MSN, FNP.
Case studies nutrition. 1. Mr. DeVita is a year-old male who has been in an accident in which he received severe burns. Elderly Case Study She tearfully discloses in confidence to you, a nursing student and her best friend, that she has had some concerns about her weight for much of her adolescent and young adult life.
She has just.