Preface by Steven P. Metathesis of heteroatom-substituted olefins and alkynes: Selected examples illustrating recent progress in this area of research are presented.
No follow-up by GP or fracture clinic is required. No follow-up x-ray is needed Complete - undisplaced or minimally displaced fractures Below-elbow cast for 6 weeks Fracture clinic within 7 days with x-ray Complete - displaced fractures Closed reduction with immobilisation in below-elbow cast for 6 weeks For young children, above-elbow casts may be applied Fracture clinic within 7 days with x-ray 2.
How are they classified? Distal radius metaphyseal fractures can be classified according to: Compression injury failure of bone resulting in the cortex bulging outwards unilateral or bilateral.
Also known as a torus injury. A fracture that extends through both cortices. Most complete metaphyseal fractures involve both the radius and ulna. The radius is commonly a complete fracture. The ulna may have a complete fracture, greenstick fracture, or a plastic deformity AP view 3.
How common are they and how do they occur? Metaphyseal fractures have a peak incidence during the adolescent growth spurt girls aged years, boys years due to weakening through the metaphysis with rapid growth. The most common mechanism of injury is a fall on an outstretched hand. Extension of the wrist at the time of injury causes the distal fragment to be displaced dorsally posteriorly.
Volar anterior displacement of the distal fragment is usually the result of a fall on a flexed wrist. These injuries can occur in conjunction with more proximal forearm fractures, such as Monteggia fracture-dislocations, supracondylar humeral fractures and hand fractures.
What do they look like - clinically? There is usually pain and tenderness directly over the fracture site, and limited range of motion in the wrist and hand.
Deformity depends on the degree of fracture displacement. Buckle injuries present with no or minimal deformity. Buckle injuries are often misdiagnosed as a wrist sprain. An x-ray of the wrist should be ordered to clarify the diagnosis. What radiological investigations should be ordered?
What do they look like on x-ray? Buckle injury Figure 1: Lateral and AP x-ray of a five year old who sustained a buckle injury of the distal radius. Buckle injuries are often subtle radiographically. They are best viewed on the lateral x-ray. Bilateral or unicortical cortical bulging can occur.
Minimally displaced complete metaphyseal fractures can be mistaken for buckle injuries Figure 2. These fractures are potentially unstable and need to be managed in a well moulded cast.
Six year old with complete metaphyseal fracture. On the lateral view, there is a minimally displaced radial metaphysis, which could be mistaken for a buckle fracture.
However on the AP view, it shows that both cortices are broken i. Complete fracture Figure 3: AP and lateral x-ray of 15 year old with complete metaphyseal fracture of radius and ulna.
Most metaphyseal fractures displace posteriorly.Radial metathesis installs new functionalities on the surface of a nanostructure through outward growth from its core. Lateral metathesis involves successive crosslinking of neighboring alkenes on the nanostructure and creates a polymer shell around the particle.
The metaphysis is the narrow portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
It contains the growth plate, the part of the bone that grows during childhood, and as it grows it ossifies near the diaphysis and the initiativeblog.com: A Radial and lateral olefin metathesis on nanostructures.
Lateral metathesis involves successive crosslinking of neighboring alkenes to one another, creating a polymer shell around the particle. The shell can provide stability to the overall structure without major alterations to particle shape or size.
There have been descriptions of stress fractures in the ulna, (3,4) the radial shaft, (5) and other locations in the upper limb, (6) but to our knowledge a stress fracture . Aug 14, · Radial height (RH) is measured by drawing 2 parallel lines perpendicular to the long axis of the radius.
Shortening of RH may indicate impaction of the distal radius when compared with a normal contralateral wrist. A free radical is a species containing one or more unpaired electrons. Free radicals are electron-deficient species, but they are usually uncharged, so their chemistry is very different from the chemistry of even-electron electron-deficient species such as carbocations and.