Indeed, the legacy of the now defunct industry still characterizes this rural coast. This plan, which aimed to modernize the island and stimulate its economy, offered only marginal gains to the citizenry and instead set it on a path of depopulation, unsustainable development, heavy reliance on imported fossil fuels, and even greater economic dependency on the United States. By the end of the twentieth century, Puerto Rican migration to the mainland—both seasonal and permanent—had become a way of life. The southeast is also home to pharmaceutical companies and to two US military training facilities, Camp Santiago and Fort Allen.
Disasters of epic proportions. Aftermath and impact Economic prospects in the Gulf Coast states were dire, as the spill affected many of the industries upon which residents depended. More than a third of federal waters in the gulf were closed to fishing at the peak of the spill, due to fears of contamination.
A moratorium on offshore drilling, enacted by U. Few travelers were willing to face the prospect of petroleum-sullied beaches, leaving those dependent on tourism struggling to supplement their incomes. A year later nearly a third of the fund had been paid out, though lack of oversight allowed government entities to submit wildly inflated claims, some unrelated to the spill.
By the fund was largely depleted. Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Department of Defense Recovery was incremental.
As oil dispersed, portions of the gulf began reopening to fishing in July, and by October the majority of the closed areas were judged safe. State governments struggled to draw attention to unsoiled or newly scrubbed beaches with advertising campaigns, often drawing on funds from BP.
Oil continued to wash ashore in many areas, and much of it could not be removed, either because of logistical reasons—mats of submerged oil and organic matter collected in tidal zones The summary of bhopal disaster were difficult to reach—or because cleaning it up would inflict greater harm on the ecosystem.
The drilling moratorium, initially set to expire in Novemberwas lifted in mid-October, though new drilling permits were not issued until February of the subsequent year following mounting government and industry pressure to increase domestic oil production. The emergence of BP chief executive Tony Hayward as the public face of the oil giant further inflamed public sentiment against the embattled company.
He was replaced in October. The report noted that, although the defective concrete cap had been installed by Halliburton, decisions about the installation process made by BP had been the cause of the failure.
The investigation further found that BP and Transocean employees aboard the rig had—while engaged in testing procedures—ignored early indications of a problem and thus missed opportunities to prevent a full-scale blowout.
Though representatives of BP conceded that the company was responsible for some of the factors contributing to the spill, they stressed that their partner companies were also to blame.
Halliburton and Transocean similarly pointed to failures on the part of the other parties involved. Legal action Charges, settlements, and penalties A formal civil and criminal investigation into the spill was initiated in June by the U.
Department of Justice DOJ. In August Louisiana district court judge Carl Barbier was appointed to oversee the consolidated proceedings relating to the spill, which had prompted numerous lawsuits and precipitated a morass of complex legal entanglements, private and public.
The move followed the postponement of a trial scheduled in late February in Louisiana district court. The monies were to be drawn from the compensation fund mandated by the Obama administration.
Previously managed by lawyer Kenneth Feinberg—who had also overseen the compensation fund for victims of the September 11 attacks —the fund was transferred to court control as part of the accord. In addition to covering economic losses sustained in the wake of the spill, the settlement mandated the payment of medical claims which had previously been denied by the fund and provided for 21 years of further medical monitoring and care, allowing for the delayed onset of symptoms and illnesses.
BP remained liable for substantial additional claims by local and state entities as well as by the federal government. An effort by the company to appeal the agreement, which received final approval in Decemberwas rejected by the U.
Supreme Court in December In November BP reached an agreement with the DOJ to plead guilty to 14 criminal charges, among them 11 counts of felony manslaughterand violations of the Clean Water and Migratory Bird Treaty acts.
BP also agreed to pay more than half a billion dollars to the Securities and Exchange Commission for misleading its shareholders about the magnitude of the oil spill. The deal was approved in January That suspension, initially thought to be temporary, was reinforced in January In August the company filed suit against the EPA in Texas federal court, asking that the ban be lifted.
It was not lifted until March ; the company successfully bid on 24 federal contracts later that month.Bhopal Plant History and Ownership Print. Bhopal Plant Union Carbide India Limited's (UCIL) Bhopal plant was a vast chemical complex containing miles of complicated piping and hundreds of specialized reactors, pressure vessels, heat exchangers and other equipment and .
Historical Perspective * Early Environmental Legislations. * Environmental Legislations in the 70s. * Environmental Legislations in the mid 80s. Fukushima accident: Fukushima accident, disaster that occurred in at the Fukushima Daiichi (‘Number One’) nuclear power plant on the Pacific coast of northern Japan, which was caused by a severe earthquake and powerful series of tsunami waves and was the second worst nuclear power accident in history.
Fukushima accident: Fukushima accident, disaster that occurred in at the Fukushima Daiichi (‘Number One’) nuclear power plant on the Pacific coast of northern Japan, which was caused by a severe earthquake and powerful series of tsunami waves and was the second worst nuclear power accident in history.
EPA's Superfund Site Information.
Disclaimer: The CERCLIS Public Access Database, which contained a selected set of publicly releasable Superfund . The Bhopal Tragedy: What Really Happened and What It Means for American Workers and Communities at Risk [M. Arun Subramaniam, Ward Morehouse] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
This hard-hitting report to the Citizens Commission on Bhopal was the first book-length account of the Bhopal tragedy and its implications for American workers and communities .